Coagulation is a well-known water treatment process and is a primary process and is done using cost effective ingredients. Some of the popularly used coagulants are listed below:
Alum or Aluminum Sulfate has commonly used coagulant in the US. It is used in combination with cationic polymers. Polyaluminum chloride needs fewer pH alterations to produce viable results, especially to reduce sludge. Ferric chloride produces better results than alum. Ferric sulfate is effective in certain types of water and is economical. Ferrous Sulfate is expensive when compared with ferric chloride, but the outcome is excellent. Sodium Aluminate is also a widely used coagulant.
Sometime cationic polymers are used in combination with iron or aluminum coagulants. Many plants widely use cationic polymers though it is expensive in while comparing on par with inorganic coagulants. The pH range is wider, and the less produced is limited. The coagulants chemicals are selected depending on the type of suspended solids that needs to be removed. The water condition and the cost incurred in removing the chemicals and improving the quality of the water.
It is important to select the right coagulant to enhance the quality of the water. A pilot study on available coagulants is important to choose an effective coagulant. Once the coagulant is selected the implementation process is easy. It is important to fabricate the tools and proceed with the civil construction accordingly. The detention time is crucial to improving the success rate of the flocculation process. The equipment selection is crucial in this case.
There are many methods to remove the impurities in the water. The process of removing textile sewage color removal is a tough task. Moreover, in the reverse Osmosis plant the feed water is not uniform. Globally many methods are available, but not all use these methods. Some of the factors for selection include uniform results, technology cost, capable of upgrading and running cost must be affordable.
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